Reference Literature

UTEX has assembled a list of selected publications dedicated to the research of algae.

There are many thousands of articles related to research on algae. This reference library should provide a foundation of literature and topics. Related information can be found on the Other Collections & Resources page.

Academic Resources

Zeikus, J.A. & Starr, R.C. 1980. The genetics and physiology of noninducibility in Volvox carteri f. nagariensisIyengar. Arch. Protistenk. 123:127-61. Zhao, J. & Brand, J.J. 1988. Sequential effects of sodium depletion on Photosystem II in Synechocystis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 264:657-64. Zhender, P. & Gorham, P.R. 1960. Factors influencing the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz Emend. Elenkin.Can. J. Microbiol. 6:645-60. Ziegler, J.R. & Kingsbury, J.M. 1964. Cultural studies on the marine green alga Halicystis parvula-Derbesia tenuissima. I. Normal and abnormal sexual and asexual reproduction. Phycologia 4:105-16. Zimba, P.V., Rowan, M. & Triemer, R. in press. Identification of euglenoid algae that produce ichthyotoxin(s). J. of Fish Diseases 27:1-3. Xie, W.-Q. & Potts, M. 1989. Quick screening of plasmid deletion clones carrying inserts of desired sizes for DNA sequencing. Gene Anal. Techn. 6:17-20. Yamamoto, M., Nozaki, H. & Kawano, S. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among multiple modes of cell division in the genus Nannochloris (Chlorophyta) revealed by genome size, actin gene multiplicity, and phylogeny. J. Phycol. 37:106-20. Yarish, C., Breeman, A.M. & Hoek, C. van den (1986). Survival strategies and temperature responses of seaweeds belonging to different biogeographic distribution groups. Bot. Mar. 29: 215-230. Yoch, D. & Gotto, J. 1982. Effect of light intensity and inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation on NH4+ inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum and Anabaena sp. J. Bacteriol. 151:800-6. Yongmanitchai, W. & Ward, O.P. 1991. Screening of algae for potential alternative sources of eicosapentaenoic acid. Phytochemistry 30:2963-7. Yu, J., Li, L., & Brand, J. submitted 2006. Indentification and Physiological Characteristics of a Green Alga Isolated from Infected Human Skin. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Waaland, S.D. 1980. Development in red algae: elongation and cell fusion. In Gantt, E. Ed.] Handbook of Phycological Methods: Development and Cytological Methods. Cambridge University Press, pp. 85-93. Walstrom, J.S. 1983. The ultrastructure of Peridiniopsis polonicum (Dinophyceae), I. An SEM study of the vegetative cell. J. Phycol. 19 (abstr. suppl.):13. Wang, J.C., Hoshaw, R.W. & McCourt, R.M. 1986. A polyploid species complex of Spirogyra communis (Chlorophyta) occuring in nature. J. Phycol. 22:102-7. Waris, H. 1953. The significance for algae of chelating substances in the nutrient solutions. Physiol. Plant. 6:538-43. Watanabe, F., Ito, T., Tabuchi, T., Nakano, Y. & Kitaoka, S. 1988a. Isolation of pellicular cobalamin-binding proteins of the cobalamin uptake system of Euglena gracilis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:67-77. Watanabe, F., Nakano, Y., Ochi, H. & Kitaoka, S. 1988b. Purification, some properties and possible physiological role of an extracellular cobalamin-binding protein from Euglena gracilis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:1385-9. Watanabe, M.M., Kasai, F. & Sudo, R. [Eds.] 1988. NIES-Collection List of Strains, Second Edition, Microalgae and Protozoa. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki, Japan, 148 pp. Watanabe, S. & Floyd, G.L. 1989a. Ultrastructure of the quadriflagellate zoospores of the filamentous green algae Chaetophora incrassata and Pseudoschizomeris caudata (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyceae) with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 102:533-46. Watanabe, S. & Floyd, G.L. 1989b. Ultrastructure of the zoospores of the coenocytic algae Ascochloris and Urnella (Chlorophyceae) with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. Br. phycol. J. 24:143-52. Watanabe, S. & Floyd, G.L. 1989c. Comparative ultrastructure of the zoospores of nine species of Neochloris (Chlorophyta). Pl. Syst. Evol. 168:195-219. Watanabe, S. & Floyd, G.L. 1989d. Variation in the ultrastructure of the biflagellate motile cells of six unicellular genera of the Chlamydomonadales and Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae), with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. Am. J. Bot. 76:307-17. Watanabe, S., Floyd, G.L. & Wilcox, L.W. 1988. Ultrastructure of the zoospores and vegetative cells of Tetraedron and Chlorotetraedron (Chlorophyceae). J. Phycol. 24:490-5. Watanabe, S., Tsuchimota, K. & Floyd, G.L. 1989. Light and electron microscopy of Brachiomonas submarina Bohlin (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 28:188-96. Wee, J.L., Millie, D.F. & Walton, S.P. 1991. Statistical characterization of growth among clones of Synura petersenii (Synurophyceae). J. Phycol. 27:570-5. Wehrmeyer, W., Zimmerman, C., Ohki, K. & Fujita, Y. 1988. On a new type of cyanobacterial phycobilisome exemplified in Phormidium persicinum Gomont. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 46:539-46. Weise, L. & Weise, W. 1977. On speciation by evolution of gametic incompatibility: a model case in Chlamydomonas. Am. Nat. 11:733-42. West, J.A. 1968. Morphology and reproduction of the red alga Acrochaetium pectinatum in culture. J. Phycol. 4:89-99. West, J.A. 1969a. Observations on four rare marine micro-algae from Hawaii. Phycologia 8:187-92. West, J.A. 1969b. The life histories of Rhodochorton purpureum and R. tenue in culture. J. Phycol. 5:12-20. West, J.A. 1972. Environmental control of hair and sporangial formation in the marine red alga Acrochaetium proskaueri sp. nov. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp. 7:377-84. West, J.A. & Calumpong, H.P. 1988. Mixed-phase reproduction of Bostrychia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in culture. I. B. tenella (Lamouroux) J. Agardh. Jpn. J. Phycol. 36:292. West, J.A. & Calumpong, H.P. 1989. On the reproductive biology of Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey (Rhodophyta) in culture. Bot. Mar. 32:379-87. West, J.A., Zuccarello, G.C., Scott, J. and Pickett-Heaps, J. 2004. Purpureofilum apyrenoidigerum gen et sp. nov (Stylonematales, Bangiophycidae, Rhodophyta) from Australia. J. Phycol. Wilhelm, C., Eisenbeis, G., Wild, A. & Zahn, R. 1982. Nanochlorum eucaryotum: a very reduced coccoid species of marine Chlorophyceae. Z. Naturforsch. 37:107- 14. Wilhelm, C. & Wild, A. 1982. Growth and photosynthesis of Nanochlorum eucaryotum, a new and extremely small eucaryotic green alga. Z. Naturforsch. 37:115-9. Williams, J.G.K. & Szalay, A.A. 1983. Stable integration of foreign DNA into the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus R2. Gene 24:37-45. Wilmotte, A. 1988. Growth and morphological variability of six strains of Phormidum cf. ectocarpi Gomont (Cyanophyceae) cultivated under differnt temperature and light intensities. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 80:35-46. Winokur, M. 1948. Growth relationships of Chlorella species. Am. J. Bot. 35:118-29. Winter, P.A. & Biebel, P. 1967. Conjugation in a heterothallic Staurastrum. Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci. 40:76-9. Witt, D. & Stackebrandt, E. 1988. Disproving the hypothesis of a common ancestry for the Ochromonas danica chrysoplast and Heliobacterium chlorum. Arch. Microbiol. 150:244-8. Wołoszyńska, J. 1912. Das Phytoplankton einiger javanischer Seen mit Berücksichtigung des Sawa-Planktons. Bull Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie Ser. B 6:649-709. Wright, D., Prickett, T., Helm, R.F., & Potts, M. 2001. Form species Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 51:1839-1852. Wyatt, J.T. & Silvey, J.K.G. 1969. Nitrogen fixation by Gloeocapsa. Science 165:908-9. Wyngaard, G.A. & Chinnappa, C.C. 1982. General biology and cytology of cyclopoids. In Developmental Biology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York. Wynne, M.J. & Edwards, P. 1970. Polysiphonia boldii sp. nov. from Texas. Phycologia 9:11-6. Wynne, M.J. & Taylor, W.R. 1973. The status of Agardhiella tenera and Agardhiella baileyi (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Hydrobiologia 43:93-107. Uhlik, D.J. & Bold, H.C. 1970. Two new species of Chlamydomonas. J. Phycol. 6:106-10. Valderrama, L.T., Del Campo, C.M., Rodriguez, C.M., de-Bashan, L.E. & Bashan, Y. 2002. Treatment of recalcitrant wastewater from ethanol and citric acid production using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the macrophyte Lemna minuscula. Water Res. 36:4185-92. Van Baalen, C. 1962. Studies on marine blue-green algae. Bot. Marina 4:129-39. Vande Berg, W.J. & Starr, R.C. 1971. Structure, reproduction and differentiation in Volvox gigas and Volvox powersii. Arch. Protistenk. 113:195-219. Van de Poll, W., Eggert, A., Buma, G.J. & Breeman, A.M. (2002). Temperature dependence of UV radiation effects in Arctic and temperate isolates of three red macrophytes. Eur. J. Phycol. 37:59-68. (as Coccotylus truncatus) Van de Poll, W.H., Eggert, A. Buma, A.G.J. & Breeman, A.M. (2001). Effects of UV-B-induced DNA damage and photoinhibition on growth of temperate marine red macrophytes: Habitat-related differences in UV-B tolerance. J.Phycol. 37:30-37. Van den Hoek, C. 1963. Revision of the European species of Cladophora. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 248 pp., 55 pl. Vandover, B. 1972. Studies of the Ultrastructure and Reproduction of Several Species of Chlamydomonas and Carteria. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 198 pp. Van-Moppes, D., Barak, Z., Chipman, D.M., Gollop, N. & Arad, S. 1989. An herbicide (sulfometuron methyl) resistant mutant in Porphyridium (Rhodophyta). J. Phycol. 25:108-12. Vannini, G.L., Poli, F., Pancaldi, S. & Fasulo, M.P. 1988. Ultrastructural effects of tetracaine on Euglena gracilis. Cytobios 54:31-7. Van Winkle-Swift, K.P., Aliaga, G.R. & Pommerville, J.C. 1987. Haploid spore formation following arrested cell fusion in Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 23:414-27. Vazquez-Duhalt, R. 1991. Effect de la lumier sur l'accumulation de lipides neutres et la composition de la biomasse chez l'algue Botryococcus sudeticus (Chlorophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algol. 12:109-19. Vazquez-Duhalt, R. & Greppin, H. 1987a. Growth and production of cell constitutents in batch cultures of Botryococcus sudeticus. Phytochemistry 26:885-9. Vazquez-Duhalt, R. & Greppin, H. 1987b. Botryococcus sudeticus Lemm., une algue productrice d'huile alimentaire. Saussurea 18:55-63. Venkataraman 1958. Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 24: 231. Vischer, W. 1932. Experimentelle Untersuchungen (Gallertbildung) mit Mischococcus sphaerocephalus Vischer. Arch. Protistenk. 76:257-73. Vischer, W. 1933. Ãœber einige kritisch Gattungen und die Systematik der Chaetophorales. Beih. Bot Centralbl. 51:1-100. Vischer, W. 1935. Zur Morphologie, Physiologie und Systematik der Blutalge, Porphyridium cruentum Naegeli. Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel 46:66-103. Vischer, W. 1936. Ãœber Heterokonten und Heterokonten-ähnliche Grünalgen (Bumilleriopsis, Heterothrix, Heterococcus, Dictyococcus, Muriella). Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 45:372-410. Vischer, W. 1937. Ãœber einige Heterokonten (Heterococcus, Chlorellidium) und ihren Polymorphismus. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 47:225-50. Vischer, W. 1938. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Botrydium. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 48:538-61. Vischer, W. 1941. Ãœber eine durch Raphidonema spiculiforme nov. spec. verursachte Wasserblute und ihre experimentelle Untersuchung. Zeitschrift für Hydrologie der Hydrobiologischen Kommission der Schweizeren Naturforschung Gesellschaft 9:108-27. Vischer, W. 1945. Heterokonten aus Alpinen Boden, speziell dem Schweizerischen Nationalpark. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparkes 1n.f.(12):481-512. Takeda, H. 1988a. Classification of Chlorella strains by means of sugar components of the cell wall. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 16:367-71. Takeda, H. 1988b. Classification of Chlorella strains by cell wall sugar composition. Phytochemistry 27:3823-6. Tanada, T. 1951. The photosynthetic efficiency of carotenoid pigments in Navicula minima. Am. J. Bot. 38:276-83. Taylor, D.L. 1971. Taxonomy of Amphidinium spp. Br. phycol. J. 6:129-33. Thinh, L.-V. 1983. Effect of irradiance on the physiology and ultrastructure of the marine cryptomonad, Cryptomonas strain Lis (Cryptophyceae). Phycologia 22:7-11. Thompson, A.S., Rhodes, J.C. & Pettman, I. Eds.]. 1988. Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa Catalogue of Strains 1988. 5th Edition, 164 pp. with supplements. Thompson, M.D., Copertino, D.W., Thompson, E., Favreau, M.T. & Hallick, R.B. 1995. Evidence for the late origin of introns in chloroplast genes from an evolutionary analysis of the genus Euglena. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:4745-52. Thurston, E.L. & Ingram, L.O. 1971. Morphology and fine structure of Fischerella ambigua. J. Phycol. 7:207-10. Tischer, R.G. & Moore, B.G. 1964. Extracellular polysaccharides of algae: effects on life-support systems. Science 145:586-7. Tiwari, G.L. & Mitra, A.K. 1968. Symphyonemopsis katniensis gen. et sp. nov., a new member of the Myxophyceae. Phykos 7:186-94. Tomas, R.N. & Cox, E.R. 1973. Observation on the symbiosis of Peridinium balticum and its intracellular alga. I. Ultrastructure. J. Phycol. 9:304-23. Trainor, F.R. 1963. The occurrence of a Dactylococcus-like stage in an axenic culture of Scenedesmus. Can. J. Bot. 41:967-8. Trainor, F.R. 1971. Unicells in soil extract in Scenedesmus strain 170. Br. phycol. J. 6:171-4. Trainor, F.R. 1979. Scenedesmus AP-1 (Chlorophyceae): polymorphic in the laboratory but not in the field. Phycologia 18:273-7. Trainor, F.R. & Bold, H.C. 1953. Three new unicellular Chlorophyceae from soil. Am. J. Bot. 40:758-67. Trainor, F.R. & Burg, C.A. 1965. Motility in Scenedesmus dimorphus, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Coelastrum microporum. J. Phycol. 1:15-8. Trainor, F.R. & Egan, P.F. 1988. The role of bristles in the distribution of a Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae). Br. phycol. J. 23:135-41. Trainor, F.R. & Egan, P.F. 1990. Lagerheimia hindakii is the unicellular stage of a Scenedesmus. J. Phycol. 26:535-9. Trainor, F.R. & Hilton, R.L., Jr. 1963. Culture of Scenedesmus longus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90:407-12. Trainor, F.R. & Hilton, R.L., Jr. 1966. Chlorosarcinopsis variabilis sp. nov. from a Connecticut cornfield soil. J. Phycol. 2:156-9. Trainor, F.R. & Rowland, H. 1968. Control of colony and unicell formation in a synchronized Scenedesmus. J. Phycol. 4:310-7. Trainor, F.R. & Verses, P.A. 1967. A new Chlorococcum from a Connecticut cornfield soil. Phycologia 6:237-9. Trelease, S.F. & Trelease, H. 1935. Changes in hydrogen-ion concentration of culture solutions containing nitrate and ammonium nitrogen. Am. J. Bot. 22:520-42. Trench, R.K. & Blank, R.J. 1987. Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellates symbionts of marine invertebrates. J. Phycol. 23:469-81. Tschermak-Woess, E. 1988. New and known taxa of Chlorella (Chlorophyceae): occurrence as lichen phycobionts and observations on living dictyosomes. Pl. Syst. Evol. 159:123-39. Tsubo, Y. 1961. Chemotaxis and sexual behavior in Chlamydomonas. J. Protozool. 8:114-21. Tupa, D.D. 1974. An investigation of certain chaetophoralean algae. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte. 46:1-155. Turmel, M., Gutell, R., Mercier, J., Otis, C. & Lemieux, C. (1993). Analysis of the Chloroplast Large Subunit Ribosomal RNA gene from 17 Chlamydomonas taxa. Three internal transcribed spacers and 12 group I intron insertion sites. Journal of Molecular Biology, 232:446-467. Turner, M.F. 1970. A note on the nutrition of Rhodella. Br. phycol. J. 5:15-8. Turpin, D.H. 1986. Growth rate dependent optimum ratios in Selenastrum minutum (Chlorophyta): implications for competition, coexistence and stability in phytoplankton communities. J. Phycol. 22:94-102. Sabba-Raju, N. 1963. Aulosira terrestre sp. nov., occurring in the soils of Hyderabad (India). Phykos 3:33-4. Safferman, R.S. & Morris, M. 1963. Algal virus: isolation. Science 140:679-80. Saito, T., Tsubo, Y. & Matsuda, Y. 1988. A new assay system to classify non-mating mutants and to distinugish between vegetative cell and gametes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Curr. Genet. 14:59-63. Sakakibara, H. & Kamiya, R. 1989. Functional recombination of outer dynein arms with outer arm-missing flagella axonemes of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant. J. Cell Sci. 92:77-83. Sanchez-Puerta, M.V., Leonardi, P.I., O'Kelly, C.J. & Caceres,E.J. 2006. Pseudulvella americana belongs to the order Chaetopeltidales (Chlorophyceae), evidence from ultrastructure and SSU rDNA sequence data. J. Phycol. 42:943-950. Sandgren, C.D. 1981. Characteristics of sexual and asexual resting cyst (statospore) formation in Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof (Chrysophyta) J. Phycol. 17:199-210. Sandgren, C.D. & Flanagin, J. 1986. Heterothallic sexuality and density dependent encystment in the chrysophycean alga Synura petersenii Korsh. J. Phycol. 22:206-16. Sargent, D.F. & Taylor, C.P.S. 1972. Light-induced inhibition of respiration in DCMU-poisoned Chlorella caused by photosystem I activity. Can. J. Bot. 50:13-21. Schanz, F., Allen, E.D. & Gorham, P.R. 1979. Bioassay of the seasonal ability of water from a eutrophic Alberta lake to promote selective growth of Anabaena flos-aquae and other blue-green algae. Can. J. Bot. 57:2443-51. Schagerl, M., D.G. Angeler and A.W. Coleman. 1999. Infraspecific phylogeny of Pandorina morum (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) inferred from molecular, biochemical and traditional data. European Journal of Phycology 34: 87-93. Scherer, S., Alpes, I., Sadowski, H. & Böger, P. 1988. Ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase is the respiratory NADPH dehydrogenase of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267:228-35. Schlösser, U.G. 1982. Sammlung von Algenkulturen. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 95:181-276. Schlösser, U.G. 1984. Sammlung von Algenkulturen Göttingen: Additions to the Collection since 1982. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 99:465-75. Schlösser, U.G. 1986. Sammlung von Algenkulturen Göttingen: Additions to the Collection since 1984. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 99:161-8. Schoevaert, D., Krishnaswamy, S., Couturier, M. & Marano, F. 1988. Ciliary beat and cell motility of Dunaliella: computer analysis of high speed microcinematography. Biology Cell 62:229-40. Schulze, D., Robenek, H., McFadden, G.I. & Melkonian, M. 1987. Immunolocalization of a Ca2+-modulated contractile protein in the flagellar apparatus of green algae: the nucleus-basal body connector. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 45:51-61. Schwabe, W., Weihe, A., Börner, T., Henning, M. & Kohl, J.-G. 1988. Plasmids in toxic and nontoxic strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Curr. Microbiol. 17:133-7. Scott, J.L., Broadwater, S.T., Saunders, B.D., Thomas, J.P. & Gabrielson, P.W. 1992. Ultrastructure of vegative organization and cell division in the unicellular red alga Dixoniella grisea gen. nov. (Rhodophyta) and a consideration of the genus Rhodella. J. Phycol. 28:649-60. Seckbach, J. 1991. Systematic problems with Cyanidium caldarium and Galdieria sulphuraria and their implications for molecular biology studies. J. Phycol. 27:794-6. Seenayya, G. & N. Subba Raju. 1972. On the ecology and systematic position of the alga known as Anabaenopsis raciborskii (Wołosz.) Elenk. and a critical evaluation of the forms described under the genus Anabaenopsis. Taxonomy and biology of blue-green algae. University of Madras, Madras, India. 52-57. Senousy H.H., Beakes G.W., & Hack E. 2004. 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The generic name Hormidium as applied to green algae.TAXON 21:639-45. Singh, K.P. 1956. Studies in the genus Trachelomonas. I. Description of six organisms in cultivation. Am. J. Bot.43:258-66. Sivak, M.N., Lara, C., Romero, J.M., Rodriguez, R. & Guerroer, M.G. 1989. Relationship between a 47-kDa cytoplasmic membrane polypeptide and nitrate transport in Anacystis nidulans. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.158:257-62. Skulberg, O.M. 1990. Catalogue of Strains, Edition 1990. Culture collection of algae Norwegian Institute for Water Research. 39 pp. Smoker, J.A. & Barnum, S.R. 1988. Rapid small-scale CNA isolation from filamentous cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56:119-22. Snell, T.W. & Boyer, E.M. 1988. Thresholds for mictic female production in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Muller).J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 124:73-85. Soloman, J.A., Walne, P.L., Dawson, N.S. & Willey, R.L. 1991. Structural characterization of Eutreptia(Euglenophyta). II. The flagellar root system and putative vestigial cytopharynx. Phycologia 30:402-14. Sorokin, C. & Myers, J. 1953. A high-temperature strain of Chlorella. Science 117:330-1. Spencer, K.G., Yu, M.H., West, J.A. & Glazer, A.N. 1981. Phycoerythrin and interfertility patterns in Callithamnion(Rhodophyta) isolates. Br. Phycol. J. 16:331-43. Stanier, R.Y., Kunisawa, R. Mandel, M. & Cohen-Bazire, G. 1971. Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (order Chroococcales). Bacteriological Reviews 35:171-205. Starr, R.C. 1949. A method of effecting zygospore germination in certain Chlorophyceae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA35:453-6. Starr, R.C. 1953a. On the morphology and reproduction of Characium saccatum Filarsky. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club80:308-13. Starr, R.C. 1953b. Further studies in the genus Chlorococcum Meneghini. Lloydia 16:142-8. Starr, R.C. 1954a. Reproduction by zoospores in Tetraedron bitridens. Am. J. Bot. 41:17-20. Starr, R.C. 1954b. 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